The cyber revolution challenges conventional mechanisms of deterrence and conflict management. It is difficult to attribute responsibility for and even detect cyber operations. The growing ability of nonstate actors to conduct offensive action further complicates the design of measures to repulse it. A large-scale cyberattack could instigate an intensifying spiral of escalation involving conventional strikes.
Dr Lucas Kello is Senior Lecturer in International Relations, Director of the Cyber Studies Programme, Co-Director of the Centre for Doctoral Training in Cyber Security (Dept of Computer Science)